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Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby Sealbhach » Mon Oct 31, 2011 3:45 pm

This plane is coming along great. I've tried out the latest changes uploaded to git.

Two things I noticed:

1. A very short takeoff roll. I get airborne in a few seconds, I would expect a plane this size to roll along for a little bit longer.

2. Once I land and have slowed down almost to a stop, with throttles at idle, the plane always spins off the runway to one side or the other. This doesn't make any sense.

Otherwise, a beautiful plane, flies really well, looks and sounds great!

.
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby durk » Mon Oct 31, 2011 4:29 pm

durk wrote in Mon Oct 31, 2011 2:13 pm:Hi Clément,

I'm using the gear up/down button on my joystick. I'll try to use the g/G later and see if that makes a difference. I'll report back later.



Reporting back later. :-)

I can confirm that using the g/G works, although there seems to be a bit of a delay before the gear starts animating. With the joystick key, I only hear a short click, as if the gear motors kick in and then get stuck. FWIW, I'm using the Saitek proflight yoke, whuch has the nasal scripts "gear-up" and "gear-down" linked to the gear buttons. (As shown in the Input/Joystick/Saitek/ProFlightYoke.xml config file (writing off the top of my head).

Cheers,
Durk
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby F-JJTH » Mon Oct 31, 2011 8:43 pm

@Sealbhach: Currently, we search someone who have the competence to make a great FDM. We work slowly about a new JSBSim FDM but nobody in our team have many knowledgement in FDM.
About the land, it's true that it's hard ! but I can do a nice land without spins off. I think you need training (without modesty ;) )
Thanks you for the report ;)

@durk: I understand why you have the bug ;) DC-3 don't use the conventional property for control the gears. So it's normal that don't work with your joystick who use "controls.gear(1)" and "controls.gear(0)". This is beacause I have implemented an hydraulics system who need to follow the real procedure. The g/G keys works because I have override the conventionnal shortcut as you can see in the file "Nasal/dc-3-keyboard.xml".

I will work in order to override the conventional "controls.gear()" function, it's easy ;)

Thanks !

Cheers,
Clément
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby helijah » Tue Nov 01, 2011 10:08 am

I wish to state here that I have not modeled the DC 3 that he has a JSBSim FDM in its official version. If FDM JSBSim ago, it is available elsewhere, but certainly not in my Hangar or GIT and if you dislike me I'm sorry. But it will be time to understand that JSBSim if it is a great product is an old and outdated solution that does not value FG.

I have not modeled aircraft in FG to make the FS like.

This is final!
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby jentron » Fri Nov 04, 2011 6:33 am

helijah wrote in Tue Nov 01, 2011 10:08 am: But it will be time to understand that JSBSim if it is a great product is an old and outdated solution that does not value FG.


I do not wish to start another JSBSim vs YASim flame war, but I do wish to point out that YASim hasn't had even bug fixes in the past two years. As far as I know, no one is currently working to fix its many glaring errors and flaws. While JSBSim has an active elopement community and continues to see improvements every month. If there is a old and outdated solution, it is not JSBSim.

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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby HHS » Fri Nov 04, 2011 1:25 pm

Hello ,

E.B. Refers on the different methods used by JSBSim and YASim. Unfortunately there a lot of false statements floating around how X-Plane, MSFS, JSBSim or YASim works and it seems to me that E.B. felt on such.

I wish to point out:

-X-Plane does make use of the so called "blade element theory". Each surface of an aircraft (as an example a wing) is break down into several elements which their number can be specified. For getting the needed coefficients it considers a whole lot of datas, and makes use of table-datas and looking at fixed values like ratios as well. At the end, step three, all forces are built up by summing up for the entire aircraft to get the aerodynamic behavior. Engines are simulated quite detailed.

-JSBsim as well build up the coefficients to get the aerodynamic behavior. Each force or moment is defined by a specifiation which can be a mathematical function, a value or a Table-look-up, but the aircraft is seen as whole unit and not broken into smaller elements as in X-Plane. But as I understood Jon S. Berndt JSBSim would also allow to break a surface into several elements. (?)
The fact that JSBSim aircraft doesn't take the ground surfaces into account is a problem on FlightGear/SimGear's side and not on JSBSim. JSBSim offers all needed things, just FlightGear/SimGear doesn't use them. Engines are simulated quite realistic, but maybe not very detailed.

-With YASim, we have to seperate between helis and fixed-wings.
On Fixed-wings the aircraft is broken only in its main elements: Fuselage and wings. A wing is just a single element, you can't specify any airfoil on it, and the coefficients which can be specified by the user are quite abstract. Engine simulation is quite poor, so YASim as whole can't be much compared with X-Plane, and a fdm made with has to be tweaked a lot to come close to the real counterpart.
The YASim-heli-fdm is indeed using the "Blade-Element-Theory", but just for the rotors. So the rotors are break up into several elements, and their number can be specified. Real airfoils datas can be applied to the rotor blades like in X-Plane. It has more values to tune than X-Plane. Unfortunately there is no engine simulation and no vortex simulation.
And there is of course the sliding-on-ground-bug.

MSFS: MSFS does use look-up-tables for some more complicated stuff like AoA, Mach and ground effects, Downwash and engines. This doesn't surprise me much as MSFS started very early and the home computers at this time wasn't able to deal with a different simulation processes like Blade Element Theory.

Facts and conclusion:
    X-Plane does make use of Look-up-Tables and fixed values as well- the difference to other models is that they break down each surface into smaller elements before.
    YASim-fixed-wing can't be much compared with X-Plane's methods.
    YASim-heli are using the same method only for the rotors as X-Plane.
    JSBSim allows different methods to get the needed coefficients- Look-up-tables are just one possible method among others.

-->JSBsim seems to be quite more flexible as it allows different methods, so JSBSim isn't outdated.

The realism-factor is specified by the developers who uses any of those fdm and not necessarily by the fdm itself: Garbage in- Garbage out. Just with creating a file with Aeromatic or the Blender-Yasim-script doesn't make the aerodynamic behavior of an aircraft in FGFS already realistic.

In fact both fdm needs a lot of real life datas like Windtunnel datas, airfoil numbers and pilot flight reports. It is naive to think that Aeromatic or the Blender-Yasim-script creates realistic fdms out-of the-box!
It is a only rough approximation that will require much tweaking before you get a result that approaches realism.

Sources:
http://download.microsoft.com/download/1/7/8/17808bed-9b1e-4542-90a6-4c1d8af27fae/Aircraft_Sim_Tech_Zyskowski.pdf
http://jsbsim.sourceforge.net/JSBSimFlyer.pdf
http://www.x-plane.com/pg_Inside_X-Plane.html
http://wiki.flightgear.org/YASim
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby durk » Mon Nov 14, 2011 8:35 pm

Hi All,

Just to bring this thread back to topic; I noticed that a new FDM was recently committed for the DC-3. I just would like to make a few observations: While the new FDM appears to be a lot more realistic, in terms of what I would expect from a DC-3, I occasionally find it a bit too stable:

* Enter a shallow turn and release the yoke: The aircraft essentially maintains it's turn. I would have expected it to drift from it's position bank angle (either back to horizontal, or --due to p-factor-- into a steeper turn).
* Likewise, raising and lowering flaps doesn't seem to affect straight and level flight too much

I have to point out that I have zero experience with the real thing, so I can't tell for sure whether these observations make sense or not. I do see a few additional points that do seem wrong though:

* In cross-wind conditions, the engines won't start. No matter how long you press the starter button, the propellors don't turn.
* Whereas the previous FDM seemed to be too sensitive to differential braking, with the current version, I have almost no steering authority whatsoever. With my engine start scenario, I found that releasing the tailwheel lock veered the aircraft into the wind, which allowed me to start, but once in that position, it's almost impossible to taxi anywhere, because the nose just keeps aligned with the wind. With the tailwheel locked, I have almost no rudder authority, and with the tailwheel unlocked, differential braking has almost no differential effect. Instead it just comes to a complete stop.

I hope these comments are useful for the further improvement of the DC3. I still like the aircraft, and I do believe that the current FDM is a step forward.

Cheers,
Durk

P.S.,

I've been flying the DC3 almost all day long last saturday at FSWeekend. On saturday morning a real captain of the DC3 "PH-PBA", operated by the Dutch Dakota Association visited and offered to arrange a trip on the real DC3 for the FlightGear booth staff. :-) I'm sure that without the great work of you guys we wouldn't have gotten such an offer.
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby spitfirebruce21 » Tue Nov 15, 2011 7:16 am

I dont know about anyone else, but on my mac, Left Rudder is Enter.
when i fly the DC-3, and go rudder left, it is dropping paratroopers, so its quit hard to take off, and land ect.
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby Alral » Wed Nov 16, 2011 7:48 pm

Excellent cockpit, excellent from inside, excellent from outside! Special thanks for amphibious mode and passenger cabin.
I have one question. I see water rudders there (what is really nice), but I don't see how to activate them. Is there a button, and where is it? I didn't manage to find it. Does water rudder work already?
And one more issue concerning lights. Only several instruments have instrument lights - is it intended so? And passengers see light from somewhere outside instead of seeing it from inside, while windows are dark from external view.
Thank you.
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby helijah » Wed Nov 16, 2011 8:34 pm

hey Airal

for water rudders it's in todo list :)

Regards. Emmanuel
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby F-JJTH » Wed Nov 16, 2011 9:04 pm

Hi durk !

Thanks you very much for your report ! You help the team very much. I'll try to answer you ;)

About the turn : I don't have any idea about the real comportment. But your report is interesting and I will speak about that to the team ;)
About the flaps : It is totally normal :) The constructor documentation say that :
Full flaps provide 45° of deflection causing an
increase in lift of approximately 35% with an
increase in parasite drag of approximately 250%.

So we can understand that flaps are mainly designed to slow down the aircraft. Moreover in video on Youtube I have seen a takeoff of a DC-3 without flaps ! It's a confirmation that flaps isn't used for increase the lift ;)

About the bug of starter fail if the aircraft is in crosswind : it is already fixed. I'm really sorry about that ! I hope we will update fastly GIT to diffuse the fix about this bug.
And finally about the wind and brake : Effectively we have many many problem with the wind... The DC-3 nose turn automatically into wind and we search how to correct that in the FDM. But as you can know, when we change a value in the FDM to fix this bug an another bug appear because of this change... The serpent biting its tail ^^
About the brake: When the tail wheel is unlocked Yasim FDM don't give the same possibility about brake... But I believe know that the PC-6 have a good gestion about the Tail Wheel and I will see in this way.

Cheers,
Clément
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby Pat70 » Fri Nov 18, 2011 6:23 pm

Hi Guys,

Thanks for reporting your try and test :)
A new corrected FDM should appear soon, some bugs will be fixed, i guess Clement (F-JJTH will release it here or in GIT)
The Tail wheel efficiency has been restored and its now possible to turn on ground and taxi much more easily even with some strong wind, albeit with too much wind you need to be careful and use more speed to gain efficiency in the turn.
The DC3 is still too sensitive to the wind but much more less than before and using rudders you can keep it on the Runway with around 12 knots crosswind, landing are also more easy.
Now releasing the yoke during a turn will cause the nose to go down and if you do nothing you will crash.

Avoid aerobatic flight at low altitude, you might stall easily, you can recover from most stall but you need some height and sufficient speed.
Brakes are a little less efficient but strong enough to stuck the nose in the ground if you do not take care during landing :)
About Flaps, as stated by Clement they are almost never used for Take Off as they produce more Drag (much more ) than lift, in some case it is recommended to use a notch of flaps for very short Runway, that will help a bit but beware you normally need a 1000 meters runway for TO and when you take the A/C it is already almost full loaded (22000 lbs, 84 kts for TO decision :) ). So far the flaps are not giving enough drag if not used with a low level of throttle (20-25 %) , you can perform good landing reducing the propeller pitch but this is not the normal procedure, you should do a long approach (approach speed below 90 kts, Touchdown around 75-80) with full Prop Pitch (so as to have enough thrust in case of problem), full flaps and reduce throttle as much as possible (almost off when you touch down) then after a while start braking while you bring the tail wheel on ground and keep it firmly on ground more you apply brakes.

This FDM is currently under test ..some minor modifications might appears before it release (dunno when yet..but check on Patrouille de France Forum and here too ).
Cheers
Pat
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby helijah » Fri Nov 18, 2011 10:46 pm

The new FDM is now avaible on GIT and in my Hangar :)

New FDM by Pat and :
Improved Shadow, thank you Bibi, and a whole bunch of other things, thank you to J-JJTH, Patten, F-Sig, Alexis and all other

Regards Emmanuel
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby durk » Sun Nov 20, 2011 7:43 am

Hi Everyone,

I only have had about 5 minutes yesterday, but a quick test showed that the steering authority now feels a lot more realistic. I still need to test in heavy wind conditions, but quick test at EHLE showed that the response to the differential brake input is a lot more in line with what I would expect. I will come back with some more comments later.

Cheers,
Durk
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Re: Douglas DC-3 C47 - Dual Control

Postby fmg » Sat Nov 26, 2011 5:53 pm

Hello folks,

just in time for the weekend I have finished my new version of the DC-3 FDM and I like to share it. Couldn't resist to work on it because I like this plane so much. It hasn't been fine tuned and extensively tested yet and it's work in progress. So probably some values will not match the original and there might be some problems still ahead. But the shape of the aircraft is now pretty completed in it and this might be a source for development.
I only once have the opportunity to take a flight with a real DC-3 but imho it feels quite similar. If you like to have a try replace the code in the dc-3-yasim.xml file (Don't forget to backup the original before, if you wish to go back to the former one). Maybe one find it helpful to get this project further.

Enjoy!

f-)

Code: Select all
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!-- Douglas DC3/C47 : BARANGER Emmanuel  (2011)
                       Updated by OO ZVY  (10/2011)
                       New version by Pat (11/2011)
                       New version by Frank G. (26/11/2011)
                       
     sources         : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_DC-3

     Wingspan        : 95 ft 00 in ( 29.00 m  )
     Lenght          : 64 ft 05 in ( 19.70 m  )
     Height          : 16 ft 11 in (  5.16 m  )
     Empty mass      :    18300 lb (  8300 kg )
     Engines         : 2 Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp S1C3G (1200 each)
     Cruise speed    :      130 kt ( 240 km/h )
     Maximim speed   :      206 kt ( 381 km/h )
     
-->

<airplane mass="18300">

  <approach speed="79" aoa="6" fuel="0.25">
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/throttle" value="0.2"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/mixture" value="1"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/propeller-pitch" value="0.2"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/boost" value="0"/>

    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/throttle" value="0.2"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/mixture" value="1"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/propeller-pitch" value="0.2"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/boost" value="0"/>

    <control-setting axis="/controls/flight/flaps" value="1"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/gear/gear-down" value="1"/>
  </approach>

  <cruise speed="171" alt="20500" fuel="1">
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/throttle" value="0.77"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/mixture" value="0.8"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/propeller-pitch" value="0.85"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/boost" value="1"/>

    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/throttle" value="0.77"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/mixture" value="0.8"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/propeller-pitch" value="0.85"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/boost" value="1"/>

    <control-setting axis="/controls/flight/flaps" value="0"/>
    <control-setting axis="/controls/gear/gear-down" value="0"/>
  </cruise>

  <cockpit x="7.931" y="0.407" z="0.431"/>

  <!-- Fuselage -->
  <fuselage ax=" 9.842" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.351" bx=" 9.5" by=" 0.000" bz="-0.37" width="0.88" taper="0.3" midpoint="1.00"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 9.5" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.37" bx=" 8.19" by=" 0.000" bz="-0.44" width="1.64" taper="0.54" midpoint="1.00"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 8.5" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.51" bx="7.9" by=" 0.000" bz="-0.29" width="2.2" taper="0.73" midpoint="1.00"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 8.3" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.2" bx=" 7.597" by=" 0.000" bz="-0.179" width="2.3" taper="0.79" midpoint="1.00"/>

  <fuselage ax=" 7.62" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.179" bx=" 4.673" by=" 0.000" bz="-0.150" width="2.570" taper="0.89" midpoint="1.00"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 4.673" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.150" bx="-1.755" by=" 0.000" bz="-0.096" width="2.570" taper="1.00" midpoint="1"/>
  <fuselage ax="-1.755" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.096" bx="-4.5" by=" 0.000" bz=" -0.04" width="2.570" taper="0.8" midpoint="0"/>
  <fuselage ax="-4.5" ay=" 0.000" az="-0.04" bx="-9.789" by=" 0.000" bz=" 0.085" width="2.056" taper="0.01" midpoint="0"/>

  <!-- Moteur gauche -->
  <fuselage ax=" 7.379" ay=" 2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 6.879" by=" 2.814" bz="-1.194" width="0.30" taper="1" midpoint="1"/>
   
  <fuselage ax=" 6.879" ay=" 2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 6.74" by=" 2.814" bz="-1.194" width="1.280" taper="0.76" midpoint="1"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 6.74" ay=" 2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 4.120" by=" 2.814" bz="-1.194" width="1.340" taper="0.95" midpoint="0.5"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 4.120" ay=" 2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 3.3" by=" 2.814" bz="-1.194" width="1.280" taper="0.62" midpoint="0.0"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 3.3" ay=" 2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 2.550" by=" 2.814" bz="-1.194" width="0.7936" taper="0.10" midpoint="0.0"/>

  <!-- Moteur droit -->
  <fuselage ax=" 7.379" ay="-2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 6.879" by="-2.814" bz="-1.194" width="0.30" taper="1" midpoint="1"/>
   
  <fuselage ax=" 6.879" ay="-2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 6.74" by="-2.814" bz="-1.194" width="1.280" taper="0.76" midpoint="1"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 6.74" ay="-2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 4.120" by="-2.814" bz="-1.194" width="1.340" taper="0.95" midpoint="0.5"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 4.120" ay="-2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 3.3" by="-2.814" bz="-1.194" width="1.280" taper="0.62" midpoint="0.0"/>
  <fuselage ax=" 3.3" ay="-2.814" az="-1.194" bx=" 2.550" by="-2.814" bz="-1.194" width="0.7936" taper="0.10" midpoint="0.0"/>
 
  <!-- Wing --> 
  <wing x="2.784" y="3.444" z="-1.255"
        chord="4.415"
        incidence="0.65"
        twist="-1.1"
        length="10.4"
        taper="0.36"
        sweep="7.7"
        dihedral="7.8"
        camber="0.29"
        idrag="0.55">
        <stall aoa="13" width="12" peak="1.5"/>
        <flap0 start="0.00" end="0.28" lift="1" drag="1.7"/>
        <flap1 start="0.28" end="1" lift="1.4" drag="1.05"/>

        <control-input axis="/controls/flight/flaps" control="FLAP0"/>
        <control-input axis="/controls/flight/aileron" control="FLAP1" split="true"/>
        <control-input axis="/controls/flight/aileron-trim" control="FLAP1" split="true"/>

        <control-output control="FLAP0" prop="/surface-positions/flap-pos-norm"/>
        <control-output control="FLAP1" side="left" prop="/surface-positions/left-aileron-pos-norm"/>
        <control-output control="FLAP1" side="right" prop="/surface-positions/right-aileron-pos-norm"/>
        <control-output control="FLAP1" prop="/surface-positions/aileron-pos-norm"/>

        <control-speed control="FLAP0" transition-time="5"/>
  </wing>

   <!-- Wing middle --> 
  <mstab x="2.784" y="0" z="-1.255"
        chord="4.415"
        incidence="0.65"
        length="3.444"
        taper="1"
        sweep="0"
        dihedral="0"
        camber="0.29"
        idrag="0.55">
        <stall aoa="13" width="12" peak="1.5"/>
        <flap0 start="0.09" end="1" lift="1" drag="1.7"/>

        <control-input axis="/controls/flight/flaps" control="FLAP0"/>

        <control-output control="FLAP0" prop="/surface-positions/flap-pos-norm"/>

        <control-speed control="FLAP0" transition-time="5"/>
  </mstab>
 
   <!-- Wing root --> 
  <mstab x="0.05" y="0.85" z="-1.345"
        chord="1.7"
        incidence="-2"
        length="1.1"
        taper="0.1"
        sweep="-39"
        dihedral="-0.8"
        camber="0"
        idrag="0.55">
        <stall aoa="13" width="12" peak="1.5"/>
  </mstab>


   <!-- Wing tip i --> 
  <mstab x="1.39" y="13.65" z="0.145"
        chord="1.5894"
        incidence="-0.45"
        length="0.5"
        taper="0.79"
        sweep="-0.5"
        dihedral="7.8"
        camber="0.29"
        idrag="0.55">
        <stall aoa="13" width="12" peak="1.5"/>
  </mstab>

   <!-- Wing tip m --> 
  <mstab x="1.4" y="14.15" z="0.215"
        chord="1.255626"
        incidence="-0.45"
        length="0.3"
        taper="0.69"
        sweep="2.5"
        dihedral="7.8"
        camber="0.29"
        idrag="0.55">
        <stall aoa="13" width="12" peak="1.5"/>
  </mstab>

   <!-- Wing tip o --> 
  <mstab x="1.39" y="14.45" z="0.26"
        chord="0.86638"
        incidence="-0.45"
        length="0.24"
        taper="0.2"
        sweep="12.5"
        dihedral="7.8"
        camber="0.29"
        idrag="0.55">
        <stall aoa="13" width="12" peak="1.5"/>
  </mstab>

  <!-- Elevator -->
  <hstab x="-7.559" y="0" z="0.136"
         chord="2.584"
         length="3.7"
         taper="0.34"
         sweep="13.3"
         camber="-0.04"
         incidence="0">
         <stall aoa="14" width="5" peak="1.5"/>
         <flap0 start="0.13" end="1" lift="1.8" drag="1.2"/>

         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/elevator" control="FLAP0"/>
         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/elevator-trim" control="FLAP0"/>

         <control-output control="FLAP0" prop="/surface-positions/elevator-pos-norm"/>
  </hstab>
 
  <!-- Elevator tip -->
  <mstab x="-8.409" y="3.6" z="0.136"
         chord="0.888"
         length="0.61"
         taper="0.2"
         sweep="36.0"
         camber="-0.04"
         incidence="0">
         <stall aoa="14" width="5" peak="1.5"/>
         <flap0 start="0" end="1" lift="1.7" drag="1.2"/>

         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/elevator" control="FLAP0"/>
         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/elevator-trim" control="FLAP0"/>

         <control-output control="FLAP0" prop="/surface-positions/elevator-pos-norm"/>
  </mstab>

   <!-- Elevator root --> 
  <mstab x="-8.92" y="0" z="0.136"
        chord="0.90"
        incidence="0"
        length="0.5"
        taper="0.9"
        sweep="22"
        camber="0"
        idrag="0.58">
        <stall aoa="14" width="5" peak="1.5"/>
  </mstab>


  <!-- Rudder -->
  <vstab x="-6.8" y="0" z="0.048"
         chord="3.5"
         length="3.36"
         sweep="20.7"
         taper="0.32">
         <stall aoa="15" width="14" peak="2.1"/>
         <flap0 start="0.23" end="1" lift="2.3" drag="1.3"/>

         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/rudder" control="FLAP0" square="true" invert="true"/>
         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/rudder-trim" control="FLAP0" invert="true"/>

         <control-output control="FLAP0" prop="/surface-positions/rudder-pos-norm"/>
  </vstab>

  <!-- Rudder top -->
  <vstab x="-8." y="0" z="3.19"
         chord="1.12"
         length="0.63"
         sweep="47.4"
         taper="0.16">
         <stall aoa="15" width="14" peak="2.1"/>
         <flap0 start="0" end="1" lift="2.1" drag="1.3"/>

         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/rudder" control="FLAP0" square="true" invert="true"/>
         <control-input axis="/controls/flight/rudder-trim" control="FLAP0" invert="true"/>

         <control-output control="FLAP0" prop="/surface-positions/rudder-pos-norm"/>
  </vstab>

  <!-- Rudder tail -->
  <vstab x="-8.28" y="0" z="0.05"
         chord="2.1"
         length="0.80"
         sweep="51"
         taper="0.9">
         <stall aoa="15" width="14" peak="1.5"/>
  </vstab>

  <!-- Rudder tail -->
  <vstab x="-8.9" y="0" z="0.55"
         chord="1.9"
         length="0.21"
         sweep="0"
         taper="0.97">
         <stall aoa="15" width="14" peak="1.5"/>
  </vstab>

  <!-- Rudder front -->
  <vstab x="-3.8" y="0" z="0.75"
         chord="4.6"
         length="2.99"
         incidence="7."
         sweep="73"
         taper="0.1">
         <stall aoa="15" width="14" peak="1.5"/>
  </vstab>

  <!-- Informations : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pratt_%26_Whitney_R-1830

       Engines      : Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp
       Type         : Fourteen-cylinder two-row supercharged air-cooled radial engine
       Power        : 1200 hp at 2700 rpm for takeoff
                    :  700 hp at 2325 rpm cruise power at 13120 ft (4000 m)
       Displacement : 1829.4 in3 (30 l)
       Masse        : 1250 lb (567 kg)
       Compression  : 6.7:1
  -->
  <propeller x="6.351" y="2.814" z="-1.194"
             mass="1250"
             moment="20"
             radius="1.75"
             min-rpm="320"
             max-rpm="2700"
             cruise-speed="169"
             cruise-rpm="1910"
             cruise-power="700"
             cruise-alt="5000"
             takeoff-power="1217"
             takeoff-rpm="2500"
             fine-stop="0.37"
             coarse-stop="3">
             <actionpt x="7.170" y="2.814" z="-1.194"/>
             <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/propeller-pitch" control="ADVANCE"/>
             <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/propeller-feather" control="PROPFEATHER"/>
             <piston-engine eng-power="1217"
                            eng-rpm="3500"
                            compression="6.7"
                            turbo-mul="2.5"
                            wastegate-mp="52"
                            displacement="1829.4">
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/throttle" control="THROTTLE"/>
                            <control-input axis="/engines/engine[0]/cranking" control="STARTER"/>
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/magnetos" control="MAGNETOS"/>
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/mixture" control="MIXTURE"/>
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[0]/boost" control="BOOST"/>
             </piston-engine>
  </propeller>

  <propeller x="6.351" y="-2.814" z="-1.194"
             mass="1250"
             moment="20"
             radius="1.75"
             min-rpm="320"
             max-rpm="2700"
             cruise-speed="169"
             cruise-rpm="1910"
             cruise-power="700"
             cruise-alt="5000"
             takeoff-power="1217"
             takeoff-rpm="2500"
             fine-stop="0.37"
             coarse-stop="3">
             <actionpt x="7.170" y="-2.814" z="-1.194"/>
             <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/propeller-pitch" control="ADVANCE"/>
             <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/propeller-feather" control="PROPFEATHER"/>
             <piston-engine eng-power="1217"
                            eng-rpm="3500"
                            compression="6.7"
                            turbo-mul="2.5"
                            wastegate-mp="52"
                            displacement="1829.4">
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/throttle" control="THROTTLE"/>
                            <control-input axis="/engines/engine[1]/cranking" control="STARTER"/>
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/magnetos" control="MAGNETOS"/>
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/mixture" control="MIXTURE"/>
                            <control-input axis="/controls/engines/engine[1]/boost" control="BOOST"/>
             </piston-engine>
  </propeller>

  <gear x="4.250" y="2.814" z="-3.582"
        compression="0.15"
        retract-time="7"
        spring="0.5"
        sfric ="0.9"
        dfric ="0.7"
        damp="1">
        <control-input axis="/controls/gear/brake-left-apply" control="BRAKE"/>
        <control-input axis="/controls/gear/brake-parking" control="BRAKE"/>

        <control-input axis="/controls/gear/gear-down" control="EXTEND"/>
        <control-speed control="EXTEND" transition-time="5.1"/>
        <control-output control="EXTEND" prop="/gear/gear[0]/position-norm"/>
  </gear>

  <gear x="4.250" y="-2.814" z="-3.582"
        compression="0.15"
        retract-time="7"
        spring="0.5"
        sfric ="0.945"
        dfric ="0.745"
        damp="1">
        <control-input axis="/controls/gear/brake-right-apply" control="BRAKE"/>
        <control-input axis="/controls/gear/brake-parking" control="BRAKE"/>

        <control-input axis="/controls/gear/gear-down" control="EXTEND"/>
        <control-speed control="EXTEND" transition-time="5.1"/>
        <control-output control="EXTEND" prop="/gear/gear[1]/position-norm"/>
  </gear>

  <gear x="-7.264" y="0.000" z="-1.252"
        compression="0.1"
        castering="1"
        spring="0.5"
        sfric ="0.95"
        dfric="0.7">
        <control-input axis="/controls/flight/rudder" control="STEER" src0="-1.0" src1="1.0" dst0="0.35" dst1="-0.35"/>
        <control-input axis="/controls/gear/tailwheel-lock" src0="0" src1="1" dst0="1" dst1="0" control="CASTERING"/>
  </gear>

  <tank x="2.3" y=" 1.7" z="-1.35" capacity="1206"/> <!-- Tank Aux Left -->
  <tank x="4.1" y=" 1.7" z="-1.35" capacity="1260"/> <!-- Tank Main Left -->
  <tank x="4.1" y="-1.7" z="-1.35" capacity="1260"/> <!-- Tank Main Right -->
  <tank x="2.3" y="-1.7" z="-1.35" capacity="1206"/> <!-- Tank Aux Right -->

  <weight x=" 8.940" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[0]/weight-lb"/>
  <weight x=" 7.130" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[1]/weight-lb"/>
  <weight x=" 6.026" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[2]/weight-lb"/>
  <weight x=" 4.257" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[3]/weight-lb"/>
  <weight x=" 1.743" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[4]/weight-lb"/>
  <weight x="-0.560" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[5]/weight-lb"/>
  <weight x="-2.727" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[6]/weight-lb"/>
  <weight x="-4.736" y="0" z="0" size="0.25" mass-prop="sim/weight[7]/weight-lb"/>

  <!-- CG placement -->
  <ballast x=" 9" y="0" z="-1" mass="4000"/>

</airplane>



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Berlin airlift. Landing in Tempelhof.
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